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Check the box next to the whitepapers you would like to receive. Select as many as you like. Whitepapers are grouped by subject area - click the blue header to expand each subject. Click the title of each whitepaper for an abstract.
Do Sweat the Small Stuff
The benefits of utilizing Infrared Thermography as a predictive maintenance (PdM) tool for electrical applications are well known. Substation equipment, service main switchgear and MCC’s are commonly inspected with frequencies as high as monthly in some instances. Yet for every large distribution apparatus scanned with regularity, any number of 208Y/120 panels, control panels and other “small” devices are overlooked. This paper will explore the benefit of adding previously uninspected “small” electrical system components to routes that have previously been occupied by switchgear and MCC’s and puts forth the position that the amperage rating of a device or enclosure no longer correlates to criticality.
Myths and Truths About Wind and Load Correction Factors
There are a number of formulas and computer programs for’ correcting’ or predicting what will happen to the temperature (or temperature rise) of an electrical fault when the load or wind changes. While these formulas are somewhat useful to indicate that significant changes in temperature may take place when the load or wind changes, they are subject to much abuse and misuse and may be downright misleading when it comes to prioritizing repairs.
10 Reasons Why a Temperature Rise Should Be Reported As "At Least"
This paper by Greg McIntosh of Snell Infrared Canada covers why the temperature, or temperature rise of an abnormally hot electrical connection should be reported as "At Least".
Locating Levels in Tanks, Vessels and Silos
This white paper discusses the parameters and limitations that must be addressed when inspecting tanks, shows techniques that can be employed to help locate levels, and provides a number of example images from IR tank inspections.
Thermal Inspections of Mobile Equipment
There are thousands of machines that move around in different manners that could be considered “mobile.” A few examples are trucks (both light and heavy), dozers, front-end loaders, forklifts, cranes, excavators, locomotives, boats, ships, mobile welders, pumps, generators and even cars. This paper covers a brief overview of how infrared can be applied to inspecting heavy/mobile equipment along with safety considerations and the conditions needed.
Thermographic Inspection of Mechanical Couplings
An overview of using infrared to inspect mechanical couplings including the types of couplings encountered, methods of failure, thermal signatures detected and the difficulties encountered
Low-Slope Roof Moisture Inspections with Infrared
Thermal imaging is successfully used to help identify potential moisture problems in low-slope roofs. This paper will address the various reasons for inspecting a roof, the conditions needed, how an infrared inspection works, and the types of thermal patterns detected. The limitations of the technology as well as alternative test methods including aerial IR inspections are also covered. Conditions permitting, a qualified operator who follows proper inspection standards is able to evaluate a low-slope roof for moisture quickly and efficiently with infrared.
Testing Building Envelope Systems Using Infrared Thermography
The structures we live and work in are susceptible to quality and performance problems during construction and maintenance that can impact performance and may, in some cases, render them dangerous. Infrared thermography can provide remarkable, nondestructive information about construction details and building performance. This paper discusses the numerous applications for the technology currently being used to inspect building envelopes. These include validation of structural details, verification of energy performance (conduction and air leakage), location of moisture intrusion, and the identification of structural and system degradation of roofs and facades.
A Unique Thermal Problem Found in Certain Double-Glazed Windows
In this paper learn the findings of an investigation about a very different—and unusual—thermal pattern discovered on windows in the home of one of the authors. The cause is related to the loss of some of the insulating argon gas installed in the window during manufacturing. The authors also discovered the problem was not uncommon for certain types of windows and as they age the issues usually become more pronounced and, in some cases, result in a total failure (implosion) of the window.
Use of Infrared Thermal Imaging for Home Weatherization
Thermal imaging is an essential tool for anyone involved with home weatherization. This paper covers how infrared is utilized to inspect residential homes for heat loss and gain, outlining how crews can use it during the audit, while at the job site and for quality assurance. Also covered is how infrared, when used with a blower door, can provide home performance professionals with a comprehensive assessment of a building’s thermal performance, allowing them to work more efficiently and effectively. Featured too is information on what type of thermal imager one should consider for this field and the specifications to consider when purchasing a system.
The Basics of Using IR for Building Moisture Inspections
Using infrared to help locate moisture problems in buildings, while effective in the right conditions, can be a challenging application for a thermographer. The moisture in question within a structure could be at the surface or, even more difficult, interstitial, making detection close to impossible in certain situations. Additionally, an infrared camera alone is not able to detect and confirm the presence moisture (or mold for that matter). Instead it is used to locate thermal patterns that may be associated with the presence of moisture. It is the task of correlating that thermal signature with a moisture meter where infrared imaging brings the greatest benefit to thermographers conducting moisture investigations. In order to do that successfully, a thermographer needs to understand what conditions are required and the types of patterns they are likely to encounter.
Infrared Camera Resolution for the Building Thermographer
When you consider which infrared camera specifications are most important to the building thermographer, thermal sensitivity and resolution are often at the top of the list…and rightfully so. Aside from focus, these two fixed equipment specifications have the greatest impact on the quality of your thermal image. So when buying an infrared camera, it is important to make sure both are sufficient for your needs and applications.
Successful Warm-Weather Infrared Inspections
Thermal imaging is not just a cold-weather tool that is only used during the winter. Great images and valuable data can be captured year-round, especially during the summer months, and in warm-weather climates, where energy efficiency concerns are also just as prevalent. Thanks to a continuous improvement in the quality and sensitivity of infrared cameras on the market, inspections are also possible during the “off season” of spring and fall when weather conditions are less than ideal or when the recommended temperature parameters of accepted industry standards are not being met. This paper will address how to approach using IR during warm weather conditions or when temperature differences were seemingly less than adequate.
Buying a Thermal Imager for Condition Monitoring
This white paper features an overview of thermal imaging equipment for condition monitoring applications including electrical systems and mechanical equipment. Learn which features and specifications are important to consider when purchasing a camera. Readers will also find information and tips on how to buy a system including performing a needs analysis, handling the sales process and budgeting for the appropriate equipment and accessories. As you read this, know that The Snell Group is vendor-neutral and we do not sell equipment nor are we a subsidiary of any infrared camera manufacturer. As such, this paper is not going to recommend a specific brand or model of thermal imager. It will instead summarize which equipment specifications are important for you to consider and which ones maybe are not.
Infrared Imagers and Cost Savings - Will Your Camera Pay for Itself?
More and more industrial and commercial facilities are purchasing their own imaging systems, taking training classes and bringing programs in house. The largest driving force in this particular trend is the growth in imager technology that has led to cameras becoming increasingly affordable. Gone are the days when a camera purchase was a major capital expenditure. In fact thermal imagers today can cost less than other more common specialty tools, but the question of value and ROI remains in the minds of many end users of thermography. This white paper will address the cost savings that should be considered if you are looking to justify buying a camera and bringing it “in-house” to start your own thermography program.
Buying a Thermal Imager for Building Applications
Over the past few years there have been considerable breakthroughs in the market for thermal imagers including the fact that prices have dropped considerably. Even better, the ideal thermal imager for today’s building thermographer does not necessarily need to be “top-of-the-line” or “most expensive”. Whether you are a home performance contractor, weatherization crew member or energy auditor there are many fine choices that will certainly meet your needs. This paper will provide an overview of thermal imaging equipment for building applications. As you read this, know that The Snell Group is vendor-neutral and we do not sell equipment nor are we a subsidiary of any infrared camera manufacturer. As such, this paper is not going to recommend a specific brand or model of thermal imager. It will instead summarize which equipment specifications are important for you to consider and which ones maybe are not.
Arc Flash, NFPA and OSHA
The purpose of an arc flash analysis is to provide “qualified persons,” who will be performing work on or near energized electrical equipment, with the information they need to protect themselves against the possibility of being injured by the release of energy as a result of an arcing fault. This paper will outline what’s real, what’s not, and what YOU need to do to ensure compliance, whether you work in a 2,000 square foot office or at a 500,000 square foot textile plant.
Give Yourself a Thermal Lobotomy
When inspecting low emissivity surfaces thermographers are taught to try to ‘eliminate the reflections’. While removing the obvious source of reflection is the proper first step, many thermographers then believe that this solves the emissivity problem. This paper will discuss why we need to consider reflectance and emittance as separate issues and deal with them accordingly.
Improving Radiometric Accuracy
This paper will attempt to define the parameters that can affect radiometric accuracy and repeatability, as well as some methods to minimize their effect. It will also discuss possible reasons for discrepancy in readings with other devices.
Surface Temperature Considerations
Engineers are usually taught the basic forms of heat transfer, often with the assumption that surface temperature is an independent variable driving the heat transfer. The reality is, however, that surface temperature is an interface between different forms of heat transfer and responds as a dependent variable. This paper will provide an overview of surface temperature as a response to different forms of both internal energy generation and external environment.
Infrared Thermography: A Versatile Nondestructive Testing Technique
Thermal imaging has long been used for discovering, understanding, and interpreting the temperature of objects within our environment. From the advent of thermal imagers in the 1950s to present day – we’ve continued to evolve and discover new applications. Infrared thermography provides a variety of different testing techniques for a wide range of components, machines, and structural materials, allowing trained thermographers to find subsurface anomalies. In this white paper from The Snell Group, learn about the use of thermal imaging for nondesctructive testing (NDT) technologies. This white paper includes an overview, basic theory, and methodologies of thermal nondescructive testing.
Confirmation and Correlation: EMT and Vibe for Healthy Motors
Electric motor maintenance has come a long way in the last 25 years. A quarter of a century ago one of the primary methods for testing motors was “megger” testing. Today, there are more choices and assessment of motors and associated rotating assets can be done quickly and efficiently, if the right technologies are implemented. This white paper will take a look at how we arrived at this point in the motor testing timeline by discussing what methods are available, how they work, and how they can be combined for superior results.
You Have a Motor Tester...Now What?
Assume your company has seen the value and decided to invest in electric motor testing (EMT) as part of their predictive maintenance program. They have selected you to introduce this new technology into its process. This paper will address how one can effectively establish EMT as an integral part of their reliability maintenance program.
Electric Motor Testing – The New Kid on the PdM Block
While vibration analysis and infrared thermography have been widely used for years as part of predictive maintenance programs, Electric Motor Testing(EMT) is a relative newcomer to condition monitoring. In reality though, the tests utilized by modern EMT systems have been around for years. Learn more about this technology in this white paper.
Thermal Profiles of Electric Motors and Their Relationship to Electric Motor Testing
Read about a study that was performed on twenty-one motors. Eighteen of them were identical motors in identical service with the same model number and sequential serial numbers. This created a unique situation where motor data could be compared and analyzed.
Managing Motors and Reliability
Read about the basic key elements for a motor management system and discover an understanding of why a motor management system is much more than just a reliability and testing program. In fact, motor reliability and testing are two key components that make a significant contribution to a motor management system.
New Equipment Commissioning Using EMT Equipment
Since the development of electric motor testing equipment back in the 1980’s, the technology has evolved to encompass multiple uses beyond the original intended purpose. This paper addresses how EMT is successfully used in the commissioning of new equipment.

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